Vendor
Wiley
Published by
Wiley (2020-10-27)
Current material
Paperback / softback
Original language
English
Themas
Energy
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Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources

Techniques for Reservoir Engineering Analysis

by Mustafa M. AlhubailReza Barati

A comprehensive textbook presenting techniques for the analysis and characterization of shale plays

Significant reserves of hydrocarbons cannot be extracted using conventional methods. Improvements in techniques such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have increased access to unconventional hydrocarbon resources, ushering in the “shale boom” and disrupting the energy sector.

Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources: Techniques for Reservoir Engineering Analysis covers the geochemistry, petrophysics, geomechanics and economics of unconventional shale oil plays. The text uses a step-by-step approach to demonstrate industry-standard workflows for calculating resource volume and optimizing the extraction process.

Volume highlights include:

  • Methods for rock and fluid characterization of unconventional shale plays
  • A workflow for analyzing wells with stimulated reservoir volume regions
  • An unconventional approach to understanding of fluid flow through porous media
  • A comprehensive summary of discoveries of massive shale resources worldwide
  • Data from Eagle Ford, Woodford, Wolfcamp, and The Bakken shale plays
  • Examples, homework assignments, projects, and access to supplementary online resources
  • Hands-on teaching materials for use in petroleum engineering software applications

The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.

 

List of contributors

Preface

1 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO UNCONVENTIONAL HYDROCARBON RESOURCES 14

1.1 BACKGROUND 14

1.2 OVERVIEW OF SHALE REVOLUTION 15

1.3 BASIC DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS 20

1.4 U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL UNCONVENTIONAL PLAYS 27

1.5 UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES INTERPRETATION WORKFLOW 63

1.6 FUTURE PROJECTION AND CHALLENGES 65

1.7 GENERAL REMARKS 66

1.8 PROBLEMS 67

1.9 REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL READING 68

2 CHAPTER TWO: PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS 78

2.1 BACKGROUND 78

2.2 PETROPHYSICS 78

2.3 LITHOLOGY EVALUATION 89

2.4 POROSITY 98

2.5 POROSITY MEASUREMENT 101

2.6 NMR CORE POROSITY FOR SHALES 119

2.7 PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION 125

2.8 PERMEABILITY 134

2.9 SATURATION 164

2.10 WETTABILITY 173

2.11 HYDROCARBON PORE VOLUME AND RESERVE ESTIMATION 181

2.12 PROBLEMS 191

2.13 REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL READING 196

3 CHAPTER THREE: PETROLEUM GEOCHEMISTRY IN ORGANIC-RICH SHALE RESERVOIRS 224

3.1 BACKGROUND 224

3.2 EVOLUTION OF ORGANIC MATTER 224

3.3 TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) 227

3.4 KEROGEN, BITUMEN AND/ OR PYROBITUMEN 228

3.5 VITRINITE REFLECTANCE 235

3.6 SOLID BITUMEN REFLECTANCE 237

3.7 ORGANIC POROSITY 238

3.8 METHODS OF DETERMINING SOURCE ROCK POTENTIAL (TOC) 242

3.9 ORIGINAL TOC AND HYDROCARBON YIELD DETERMINATIONS 272

3.10 THERMAL MATURITY AND SOURCE ROCK ASSESSMENT 281

3.11 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS OF THERMAL MATURITY IN KEROGEN 291

3.12 DRIFTS ANALYSIS OF KEROGEN MATURITY 300

3.13 PROBLEMS 304

3.14 REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL READINGS 308

4 CHAPTER 4: APPLICATION OF IMAGING TECHNIQUES IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC-RICH SHALES 320

4.1 X-RAY MICRO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (X-RAY MICRO-CT) 321

4.2 X-RAY NANO-CT 361

4.3 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 367

4.4 BROAD ION BEAM-SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (BIB-SEM) 417

4.5 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 420

4.6 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ON MICRO- AND NANO-CT 420

4.7 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ON ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 421

4.8 REFERENCES 429

5 CHAPTER FIVE: GEOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS 439

5.1 BACKGROUND 439

5.2 BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS 439

5.3 STRESSES AND PRESSURE GRADIENTS 445

5.4 WELL LOGGING MEASUREMENTS TO DETERMINE THE ELASTIC PARAMETERS 458

5.5 IDENTIFYING THE GEOMECHANICAL SWEET SPOTS 466

5.6 GENERAL REMARKS 477

5.7 PROBLEMS 480

5.8 REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL READINGS 484

6 CHAPTER SIX: HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 493

6.1 BACKGROUND 493

6.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 495

6.3 FRACTURING FLUIDS 536

6.4 PROPPANT 552

6.5 MODELING OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURES 567

6.6 PROBLEMS 585

6.7 REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL READINGS 587

7 CHAPTER 7 PHASE BEHAVIOR OF SHALE OIL AND GAS 601

7.1 INTRODUCTION 601

7.2 COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSES OF SHALE FLUIDS 601

7.3 PHASE BEHAVIOR AND PVT EXPERIMENTS 615

7.4 EQUATION OF STATE (EOS) 630

7.5 EOS REGRESSION TO EXPERIMENTAL DATA 653

7.6 MINIMUM MISCIBILITY PRESSURE 657

7.7 CHAPTER PROBLEM 668

7.8 REFERENCES 673

8 FLUID FLOW THROUGH NANO-SIZED PORES 682

8.1 INTRODUCTION 682

8.2 PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION 683

8.3 ADSORPTION 684

8.4 FLOW REGIMES 691

8.5 MODELING TECHNIQUES 694

8.6 LATTICE BOLTZMANN MODEL (LBM) 705

8.7 APPENDIX 719

8.8 REFERENCES 728

9 CHAPTER NINE: DECLINE CURVE AND RATE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS 739

9.1 BACKGROUND 739

9.2 PURPOSE OF DECLINE CURVES 739

9.3 DECLINE CURVE ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS 740

9.4 TRADITIONAL DECLINE CURVE MODELS 742

9.5 ARPS' MODELS 742

9.6 MODERN DECLINE CURVE MODELS 758

9.7 RATE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS 772

9.8 PROBLEMS 796

9.9 REFERENCES 817

10 CHAPTER 10: PETROLEUM ECONOMICS OF UNCONVENTIONAL SHALE RESERVOIRS 825

10.3 FUNDAMENTALS OF PETROLEUM ECONOMICS 832

10.4 FISCAL REGIMES AND CONTRACTS 848

10.5 DECISION, UNCERTAINTY AND RISK ANALYSIS 853

10.6 CHAPTER PROJECT 855

10.7 PROBLEMS 868

10.8 REFERENCES 869

11 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF SHALE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENTS 871

11.1 INTRODUCTION 871

11.2 WATER MANAGEMENT AND REUSE 872

11.3 CHEMICALS USED IN FRACTURING FLUIDS 889

11.4 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON DRINKING WATER RESOURCES 900

11.5 INDUCED SEISMICITY 901

11.6 AIR POLLUTION 903

11.7 REFERENCES 905

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