Published by
Wiley (2021-01-26)
Current material
Original language
Food & beverage technology

Food Formulation

Novel Ingredients and Processing Techniques

by Brijesh K. TiwariShivani Pathania

Split in to 3 sections, this book will address areas of significant relevance to the food and nutraceutical sectors. 
The first section will cover the basis of food formulation i.e. ingredients. Smart and functional ingredients from plant and animal sources, healthy ingredients such as salt, sugar and phosphate replacers, bioactives and peptides, macronutrient and micronutrient ingredient interactions.
The second section will review the application of emerging technologies in processing of new food formulations. New techniques such as 3D printing for tailor made, demand driven production and products with geometric intricacy have great potential. Encapsulation and combination techniques to improve the flavour and acceptability of functional food ingredients, and recent developments in greener technologies, including microwave heating, ultrasonication, supercritical fluid extraction, pulsed electric field, ohmic heating, dielectric heating and other emerging technologies will be discussed, with emphasis on operational principles and inherent strengths and weaknesses of the technologies from food formulation viewpoint.
The final section will look at recent developments in food formulations. Detailing new customised food formulations for targeted populations (baby food, high protein formulations for athletes, lactating mothers and ageing populace), food targeting allergies and intolerance (gluten free, lactose free products), and prebiotic and probiotic food formulation for gut health.
Recently, mathematical tools have been developed and identified to support new product development and food formulation process. Therefore, a part of this section will also review the mathematical tools used for formulating a recipe for a food product and process control. This section will conclude with a look at the recent amendments and additions in regulations and legislations for novel food formulations.

This book will serve as a comprehensive reference book for students, researchers, food ingredients specialists and products developers providing an up-to-date insight into food formulation.


Chapter 1: Food formulation and product development

Shivani Pathania, Cheenam Bhatia and Brijesh Tiwari

1.1 Introduction

1.2 New product development

1.3 Challenges in food formulations

1.4 Relevance of the book and objectives

1.5 Conclusions

Chapter 2:  Smart functional ingredients

Milica Pojić

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Smart protein ingredients

2.2.1 Novel sources of proteins of plant origin Alternative plants as novel sources of protein

2.2.2 Aquatic photosynthetic organisms as novel sources of protein

2.2.3 By-products of plant origin as renewable protein sources

2.2.4 Novel sources of protein of animal origin

2.2.5. Novel sources of proteins of microbiological origin

2.3 Smart carbohydrate ingredients

2.3.1 Alternative plants as novel sources of polysaccharides

2.3.2 By-products as renewable polysaccharide source

2.3.3 Edible mushrooms as source of polysaccharides

2.4 Conclusion and future considerations

2.5 References

Chapter 3: Healthy Ingredients

Ciara McDonagh

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Need for healthy ingredients

3.3 Salt replacers

3.4 Sugar replacers

3.5  Phosphate replacers

3.6 Bioactives

3.7  Peptides

3.8 Conclusions and future trends

3.9 References

Chapter 4: Macromolecules Interactions in food formulations

Puneet Parmar, Rajpreet Goraya, Shivani Pathania

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Role of macromolecular interactions

4.3 Types of macromolecular interactions

 4.3.1 Protein-protein interactions

 4.3.2 Protein-polysaccharide interactions

 4.3.3 Protein-lipid interactions

 4.3.4 Protein-Water Interactions

 4.3.5 Polysaccharide-lipid interactions

 4.3.6 Polysaccharide-protein-lipid interactions

4.4 Role of macromolecular interactions in various food products

4.4.1 Cereal products

4.4.2 Meat products

4.4.3 Dairy products

4.5 Conclusions

4.6 References

Chapter 5: Effect of ingredient interactions on techno-functional properties

Hanuman Bobade, Savita Sharma and Baljit Singh

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Effect of food formulation on structural properties

5.2.1 Effect on microstructure

5.2.2 Effect on particle size distribution

5.2.3 Effect on textural attributes

5.3 Effect of food formulation on functional properties

5.3.1 Emulsification Behaviour

5.3.2 Water absorption behaviour

5.3.3 Solubility

5.3.4 Water holding capacity

5.3.5 Viscosity

5.3.6 Gelation

5.3.7 Foaming and foam stability

5.4 Effect of food formulation on flavour

5.5 Conclusions

5.6 References

Chapter 6: 3D printing

Arianna Dick, Sangeeta Prakash, Bhesh Bhandari

6.1 Introduction

6.2 A brief history of 3D food printing

6.3 Principle and application

6.4 3D printed food products

 6.4.1 Fruits, vegetables, and legumes

6.4.2 Cereals and grains

6.4.3 Meat, fish and seafood products

6.4.4 Dairy products and derivatives

6.4.5 Confectionery and desserts

6.4.6 Alternative ingredients and end-products

6.5 Scalability and future outlook

6.6 Conclusions

6.7 References

Chapter 7: Encapsulation technologies applied to food processing

Carlos Álvarez and Daniel Pando

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Encapsulation techniques

 7.2.1 Coacervation

7.2.2 Co-crystallization

7.2.3 Spray-drying

7.2.4 Spray freeze drying

7.2.5 Emulsions

7.2.6 Liposomes

7.2.7 Niosomes

7.2.8 Inclusion complexation

7.3. Applications in the food industry

7.3.1 Aromatic and volatile compounds

7.3.2  Vitamins

7.3.3  Polyphenols

7.3.4  Peptides, proteins, hydrolysates

7.3.5  Enzymes

7.3.6  Lipids

7.4 Factors affecting releasing kinetics

7.5  Conclusions

7.6 References

Chapter 8: Extrusion technology for food formulations

Manzoor Ahmad Shah, Shabir Ahmad Mir and B.N.Dar

8.1 Introduction

8.2 History and state of the art

8.3 Application of extrusion technology

8.4 Recent advances in extrusion process

8.5 Effect of processing conditions on food formulation

8.6 Conclusions

8.7 References

Chapter 9: Thermal processing technologies

Tomás Lafarga, Anna Vallverdú Queralt, Gloria Bobo, Maribel Abadias and Ingrid Aguiló-Aguayo

9.1 Introduction

9.2. Conventional thermal processing technologies

9.2.1 Effect of thermal treatments on polyphenols Blanching Pasteurization and sterilization

9.2.2  Effect of thermal treatments on carotenoids

9.2.3 Effect of thermal treatments on vitamins

9.3. Novel thermal technologies

9.3.1 Ohmic heating

9.3.2 Microwave processing

9.4 Conclusions

9.5 References

Chapter 10: Non-thermal processing Technologies

Maneesha S. Mohan, Ingrid Aguiló-Aguayo and Tomás Lafarga

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Non-thermal technologies

10.2.1 High pressure processing

 Principles of high pressure processing

High pressure equipment

Effect of high pressure on different food components

Effect of high pressure treatment on proteins.

Effect of high pressure treatment on lipids

10.2.2 Pulsed Electric Field

10.3.3 Ultrasound technologies

10.4 Conclusions and future studies

10.5 References

Chapter 11: Formulation for food intolerance

Vintila I.

11.1  Introduction

11.2  Celiac disease

11.3  Celiac disease food formulations, technology and quality

11.4  Lactose intolerance

11.5  Lactose-free food formulations, technology and quality

11.6  Formulations for other food intolerances

11.7  Conclusions

11.8  References

Chapter 12: Prebiotic and probiotic food formulations

Pradip Behare, Shaik Abdul Hussain, Desirée Román Naranjo, Prateek Sharma and Olivia McAuliffe

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Need for probiotics and prebiotics

12.3 Probiotic food formulations

12.3.1 Dairy-based probiotic foods

12.3.2 Non-dairy based probiotic products

12.4. Prebiotic food formulations

12.5. Functional properties

12.6 Health effects

12.6.1 Reduced risk of lactose intolerance

12.6.2 Antimicrobial properties

12.6.3 Anticarcinogenic properties

12.6.4 Immunomodulatory activities

12.6.5 Prevention of cardiovascular disease

12.6.6 Urogenital tract Infection (UTI)

12.6.7 Enhancement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production

12.6.8 Anti-diabetic activities

12.7 Conclusion

12.8 References

Chapter 13: Mathematical tools for food formulation

Camila Perussello and Jesus Frias

13.1  Introduction

13.2. Food formulation experimental design

13.2.1 Factorial designs

13.2.2 Mixture designs

13.3 Consumer-based food formulation

13.3.1 Preference mapping

13.3.2 Multinomial regression

13.4 Nutrikinetics and Nutridynamic characteristics of food formulations

13.4.1 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) modelling

13.4.2 Population-based non-linear mixed effect modelling

13.5 Conclusion

13.6 References

Chapter 14:  Regulatory and Legislative Framework for Novel Foods

Jessica Vapnek, Kai Purnhagen and Ben Hillel

14.1 Introduction

14.2 What is a Novel Food?

14.3 Overview of Regulatory Frameworks for Novel Foods

14.4 Specific Regulatory Issues

14.5 Other Legal Issues

14.6 Conclusions

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